Article 33 - Programming Sockets

Sockets programming is another way to make a program communicate using the network.

There are certain levels of socket programming. It could involve programming the layers of the TCP protocol, for example. The TCP protocol consist of the layers: application, presentation, session, transport, network, data-link, and physical.

In case you have forgotten, the application layer is the API for the programmer, which normally consists of opening, closing, reading, and writing into the socket. The session layer defines the session, which is normally used for Secure Sockets. The network layer is for routing tasks, such as routing from one network (router) to another. The data-link layer converts the physical signals (of bits) and passes it on to the network layer. It may also handle low level routing, such as MAC address routing. The physical layer is simply the physical representation of the electrical signal through the communication medium, for instance, wireless waves, or electrical currents in ethernet cables.

There are two cases for socket programming, one to generate a socket to connect to an outside communication, and the other is to generate a socket to listen to incoming communication.

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